Category Archives: 04.第四章-泡茶原理Chapter Four-Tea Brewing Principles-蔡荣章rong-tsang-tsai

蔡荣章Rong-tsang Tsai。第四章-泡茶原理Chapter Four-Tea Brewing Principles

第四章-泡茶原理Chapter Four-Tea Brewing Principles-蔡荣章Rong-tsang Tsai

中英文茶学术语”Chinese-English Tea Studies Terminology

蔡荣章Rong-tsang Tsai 编著Editor

2010.02台北陆羽茶艺股份有限公司 ISBN978-957-9690-06-5

第四章-泡茶原理Chapter Four-Tea Brewing Principles

4.1.与茶为友be friends with tea

泡茶的基本态度是”与茶为友be friends with tea”。

4.2.泡茶五要素5-Keys of Brewing

4.3.水温water temperature

4.4.水质water quality

4.5.茶水比例tea to water ratio  (g:cc)

4.6.时间infusion time

4.7.冲泡器brewing vessel

“水温water temperature”、 水质water quality 、”茶水比例tea to water ratio” 、时间infusion time 、”冲泡器brewing vessel”,是为”泡茶五要素5-Keys of Brewing”。

4.8.散热速度heat dissipation rate

4.9.密度高high density

4.10.胎身薄thin body

4.11.保温效果heat preservation effect

4.12.密度低low density

4.13.胎身厚 thick body

壶之影响泡茶效果,最主要的是壶的”散热速度heat dissipation rate” ,”密度高high density”者、”胎身薄thin body”者,散热速度快,即所谓之”保温效果heat preservation effect”差;”密度低low density”者,”胎身厚thick body”者,散热速度慢,即所谓之保温效果好。

4.14.水中矿物质含量dissolved mineral content

4.15.硬水hard water

4.16.软水soft water

若水中的”矿物质含量dissolved mineral content”太高,一般称为”硬水hard water” ,相反的,含量不高时,就称为”软水soft water”。软水才是泡茶良好的用水。

4.17.逆渗透净水法reverse osmosis water filtration

降低水中矿物质的含量,可以使用”逆渗透净水法reverse osmosis water filtration”。

4.18.逆渗透滤水器reverse osmosis water filter (RO water filter)

4.19.活性碳 active carbon

4.20.逆渗透滤水reverse osmosis (RO  water)

“逆渗透滤水器”RO water filter”可以降低水的硬度;”活性碳 active carbon “可以滤掉杂味与杂色。

4.21.消毒药剂disinfectant

4.22.氯chlorine

0.00.活性碳active carbon

若水中含有”消毒药剂disinfectant” ,如”氯chlorine” ,可以使用”活性碳active carbon”将之滤掉。

4.23.水中空气含量 air solubility in water

4.24.活性vibrant

“水中空气含量air solubility in water”高者,饮来口感较具”活性vibrant”。

4.25.杂质impurities

4.26.含菌量bacteria quantity

水中的”杂质impurities”与”含菌量bacteria quantity”是越少越好。

4.27.余氯residual chlorine

4.28.杂味off-flavor

4.29.危害健康的重金属harmful heavy metals

4.30.含菌量bacteria quantity

泡茶用水的矿物质总含量要低、而且不含”余氯 residual chlorine “等其他”杂味 off-flavor “。含”危害健康的重金属 harmful heavy metals “或”含菌量 bacteria quantity “太高也是不好的。

4.31.矿泉水mineral water

4.32.饮用水drinking water

市面上的”矿泉水mineral water”与”饮用水drinking water”若是矿物质含量低者,是可以用来泡茶的,若是矿物质含量高,只能作为饮用。

4.33.泉水spring water

“泉水spring water”是否适于泡茶,也是要依其矿物质、杂质、含菌量的多少而定。

4.34.导电度electric conductivity about 10ppm or less is good”

水中矿物质含量的多寡可以用”导电度electric conductivity”来表示、10度以内的软水是很适合泡茶的。

4.35.暂时硬水impermanent hard water

4.36.以煮沸的方法降低硬度reduce hardness by boiling

4.37.永久硬水permanent hard water

“暂时硬水 impermanent hard water “可”以煮沸的方法降低硬度 reduce hardness by boiling “、”永久硬水 permanent hard water “就不行了。

4.38.泉源深deep wellspring

“泉源深 deep wellspring “的泉水较不易受地面水的影响。

4.39.水温water temperature

4.40.低温low temperature 70°C~80°C

4.41.中温medium temperature 80°C~90°C

4.42.高温high temperature 90°C~100°C

泡茶的”水温water temperature”很重要,有些茶要用”低温low temperature 70°C~80°C “的水,有些茶要用”中温medium temperature 80°C~90°C”的水,有些茶要用”高温high temperature 90°C~100°C”的水。

4.43.茶叶主要成分在不同水温之下的溶解状况The dissolving parameters of tea leaf main ingredients in various water temperatures

泡茶时要注意”茶叶主要成分在不同水温之下的溶解状况 The dissolving parameters of tea leaf main ingredients in various water temperatures”。

4.44.影响水温的因素change water temperature factors

有没有温壶是”影响水温的因素 change water temperature factors “之一。

4.45.水温的判断determine water temperature

“水温的判断 determine water temperature “是学习泡茶的重要课题。

4.46.蒸气外冒的状况steam emitting condition

从”蒸气外冒的状况 steam emitting condition “可以判断水的温度。

4.47.茶汤倒出后茶叶的散热leaves cool down after pouring the liquid

前一泡的水温太高,使用”茶汤倒出后茶叶的散热” leaves cool down after pouring the liquid”是改善该泡水温的方法之一。

4.48.水温与茶汤质量water temperature and tea liquid quality

水温与茶汤质量 water temperature and tea liquid quality “是指不同的水温可以将同一种茶泡出不同质感的茶汤。

4.49.置茶量tea amount

4.50.蓬松的茶puffy form tea

4.51.紧结的茶tight form tea

4.52.密实的茶compact form tea

4.53.冲泡的次数number of brews

小壶茶的”置茶量tea amount”要看茶是属”蓬松的茶puffy form tea” ,还是”紧结的茶tight form tea” ,还是”密实的茶compact form tea” ,再依想”冲泡的次数number of brews”来决定置茶量。

4.54.紧压程度degree of compression

4.55.剥碎程度degree of flaked size

紧压茶的冲泡要注意茶的”压紧程度degree of compression”与”剥碎程度flaking size”。

4.56.多次性泡茶法multiple brew method

4.57.可泡茶次数possible number of brews

4.58.茶水比例 tea to water ratio

“多次性泡茶法”  multiple brew method  “的”可泡茶次数”   possible number of brews       “要依”置茶量”与”茶水比例 tea to water ratio “而定。

4.59.单次性泡茶法single brew method

4.60.水量cc数”1.5%的茶量g数”tea to water ratio is 1.5%g:cc ”

含叶茶法是”单次性泡茶法single brew method “,使用”水量cc数”1.5%的茶量g数” tea to water ratio is 1.5%g:cc”

4.61.净梗stemless

4.62.半梗partially stemless

4.63.带梗with stems

泡茶时要注意茶的外形,包括「净梗」 stemless “、”半梗 partially stemless “与”带梗 with stems ” 等情形。

4.64.解块flaking

4.65.含块flakes with lumps

紧压茶在冲泡之前必先剥散,称为”解块 flaking ” ,这与揉捻时之解块不同意义 。冲泡时还得留意「含块」 flakes with lumps “的大小。

4.66.着延spread

4.67.茶水可溶物water soluble substances of tea

茶叶”着延 spread “的轻重会影响”茶水可溶物 water soluble substances of tea “溶解的速度。

4.68.揉捻的轻重degree of rolling

4.69.叶胞被揉破的程度leaf crumble degree

4.70.叶底 brewed leaves

所谓”揉捻的轻重 degree of rolling “是指”叶胞被揉破的程度 leaf crumble degree “。这些从泡开后的”叶底 brewed leaves “可以清楚地看出。

4.71.茶青的嫩度fresh leaf tenderness degree

4.72.萎凋的轻重withering degree

4.73.外形紧结程度tea shape tightness

4.74.条索紧结程度tea leaf tightness

4.75.焙火的轻重roasting degree

4.76.昆虫叮咬情形的轻重insect bitten condition

4.77.枝叶连理的情形stem and stemless degree

4.78.茶形的大小tea leaf size

4.79.陈放的时间storing time

4.80.渥堆与否piling or non-piling

4.81.水可溶物含量的多寡water soluble substance quantity

4.82.浸泡时间infusion time

以上这些状况都是影响泡茶时”浸泡时间infusion time” 的因素。

4.83.松紧程度compress tightness degree

紧压茶的”松紧程度 compress tightness degree “有很大的差异。

4.84.经济型置茶量economical quantity style

4.85.优裕型置茶量abundant quantity style

只泡一次的茶叶用量有”经济型置茶量 economical quantity style “与”优裕型置茶量 abundant quantity style “之分。前者在饮用时可以让茶叶一直浸泡着,后者在适当浓度后必須将茶叶与茶汤分离。

4.86.可溶物释出速度solubility rate

4.87.可溶物释出率solubility proportion

泡茶水温会影响”可溶物释出速度solubility rate”与”可溶物释出率solubility proportion”。

4.88.基本浸泡时间minimum brewing time

小壶茶的第一泡有所谓之”基本浸泡时间minimum brewing time” ,少于这个时间,虽然茶汤浓度足够,但水中的成分不够完整。

4.89.间隔时间brew interval time(between brews)

前后两泡”间隔时间  brew interval time “的长短会影响所需浸泡时间。

4.90.向前读秒的计时器forward counting timer

4.91.倒数的定时器countdown timer backward timer”

控制茶叶浸泡时间可利用”向前读秒的计时器forward counting  timer” ,倒数的定时器 backward timer    “不实用。

4.92.倒干程度drain drying degree

泡茶时茶汤”倒干程度 drain drying degree “会影响当时与下一泡茶汤的浓度。

4.93.前一泡的浓度对下一泡茶的影响brewed tea strength influence on following brewing

连续冲泡数道茶汤,应理解”前一泡的浓淡对下一泡茶的影响 brewed tea strength influence on following brewing “。

4.94.茶鉴定tea tasting

4.95.茶欣赏tea appreciation

“茶鉴定tea tasting”与”茶欣赏tea appreciation”是一体的两面,相辅相成。

4.96.鉴定茶组tea tasting set

4.97.冲泡盅tea tasting brewing cup

4.98.评茶碗tea tasting bowl

4.99.审茶碟tea tasting saucer

茶之国际标准”鉴定茶组tea tasting set”包括:”冲泡盅tea tasting brewing cup”、”评茶碗tea tasting bowl”、”审茶碟tea tasting saucer”。

4.100.观汤色observe tea liquid color

4.101.闻热香smell hot aroma

4.102.尝滋味observe tea flavor

4.103.闻中香smell warm aroma

4.104.闻冷香smell cool aroma

4.105.审叶底observe brewed leaves

4.106.看外观observe appearance

茶之官能鉴定包括:”观汤色observe tea liquid color”、”闻热香smell hot aroma”、”评滋味observe tea flavor”、”闻中香smell warm aroma”、”闻冷香smell cool aroma”、”审叶底observe brewed leaves”与”看外观observe appearance”。

4.107.适当的浓度proper strength

4.108.冲泡总次数total brews of vessel

4.109. 第几次之冲泡 which brew of vessel

泡茶要泡出茶汤最”适当的浓度proper strength” ,包括”冲泡总次数” total brews of vessel”中的”第几次之冲泡which brew of vessel”

4.110.茶性tea character

4.111.苦味bitterness

4.112.涩味astringency

泡茶要将该种茶的茶性tea character表现得最好。若降低水温可以减弱茶汤的”苦味bitterness” ,若减少浸泡的时间,可以降低”涩味astringency”。

4.113.太淡too light tasting

4.114.太浓too heavy tasting

泡茶时若可溶物释出太少,我们称这时的茶汤为”太淡too light tasting” ,若可溶物释出太多,我们称为”太浓too heavy tasting”。

4.115.浓度strength

4.116.给予口腔的打击程度mouth intenseness

4.117.质量quality

我们说数道茶的”浓度strength”应力求一致,这浓度是指茶汤”给予口腔的打击程度mouth intenseness” ,不是说”质量quality”的好坏。

4.118.稠度richness

4.119.水可溶物的总和TDS – total dissolved solids

4.120.刺激性sharpness degree

茶汤的”稠度richness”是指”水可溶物的总和TDS – total dissolved solids” ,与表示强劲度的”刺激性sharpness degree”不同。

4.121.立体感stereo feeling

泡茶要将茶汤泡出适当的”稠度 richness ” ,而且要泡出”立体感 stereo feeling ” ,泡出”茶性tea character “。

4.122.汤量在数泡间之变化tea liquid volume changes per brew

同样冲泡器,每道汤量会逐渐减少的,泡茶时要留意”汤量在数泡间之变化 tea liquid volume changes per brew “。

4.123.茶汤温度与口感的关系tea liquid temperature and mouthfeel relationship

品茶时的汤温会影响口感,要注意”茶汤温度与口感的关系 tea liquid temperature and mouthfeel relationship “。

4.124.汤前香pre-brew scent

4.125.汤后香post brew scent

茶叶冲泡之前所显现的香气称为”汤前香pre-brew scent” ,冲泡之后在茶汤与叶底所显现的香气称为”汤后香post brew scent”

0.000.水可溶物”water soluble substances

4.126.依我们希望的比例与份量溶出expected proportion and quantities to dissolve

泡茶的要领除要求茶汤达到一定的浓度外,尚要求各种”水可溶物”  water soluble substances  “”依我们希望的比例与份量溶出 various water TDS expected proportions “。

4.127.水可溶物溶解速度的内在因素water TDS dissolved rate intrinsic factors

4.128.水可溶物溶解速度的外在因素water TDS dissolved rate extrinsic factors

泡茶应理解”水可溶物溶解速度的内在因素 water TDS dissolved rate intrinsic factors “与”水可溶物溶解速度的外在因素 water TDS dissolved rate extrinsic factors “。

4.129.最佳状况optimum condition

4.130.标准浓度standard strength

每道茶都要表现该茶当时的”最佳状况optimum condition” ,这种最佳状况也是我们追求的所谓”标准浓度standard strength”。

4.131.客观地欣赏茶的美appreciate tea objectively

4.132.表现你所要述说的意念与思想express your idea

4.133.陶冶心性cultivate ones character

品茗的意义在”客观地欣赏茶的美appreciate tea objectively” ,并借着泡茶、品饮的过程”表现你所要述说的意念与思想express your  idea”。泡茶、品饮、还可以”陶冶心性cultivate ones character”。

4.134.泡茶师箴言: Tea Master Maxim:

4.135.泡好茶乃茶人体能之训练、茶道追求之途径、茶境感悟之本体。

Improve Brewing is advancing the ability of the Tea Artist、 is the way to the Spirit of Tea、 is the enlightenment of the Tea World.

“泡茶师箴言Tea Master Maxim”对泡茶的重要性如此叙述:”泡好茶乃茶人体能之训练、茶道追求之途径、茶境感悟之本体也Improve Brewing is advancing the ability of the Tea Artist、 is the way to the Spirit of Tea、 is the enlightenment of the Tea world.”。

*说明  : 将茶学专用术语整理、翻译及审定,是当前在学校或国际间推动茶文化工作时很重要的茶学材料。我们只是逐步完成初学茶道者所应用的部分,尚需继续完备。此书 于2005年初开始收编茶学术语,进行整理、修编、审定以及翻译工作,编著:蔡荣章,英文翻译:Steven R.Jones, 校勘:蔡晓晓,于201002出版发行。Editor:Rong-tsang Tsai , English Translator:Steven R.Jones

 

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