Category Archives: 17.無我茶會Sans Self Tea Gathering (Wu-Wo Tea Ceremory)基本架构 The Basic Model-蔡荣章-Rong-tsang Tsai

無我茶會Sans Self Tea Gathering (Wu-Wo Tea Ceremory) The Basic Model-蔡荣章-Rong-tsang Tsai

无我茶会基本架构 Sans Self Tea Gathering: The Basic Model-蔡荣章-Rong-tsang Tsai

2012春,无我茶会英译更名为「Sans Self Tea Gathering

蔡荣章Rong-tsang Tsai

无我茶会于1990初创建。茶会的意义着重于对「无」的体悟。无我一词在宗教思想上广泛使用,但我们将无我解释为「懂得无的我」。无我茶会的茶会表示「聚会」的意思,没有强调它的仪式性,且把这样的茶会当作一件茶道艺术的作品。创建之初,未发现适当用语之时,暂时英译为「Wu-Wo Tea Ceremony」。

2012年春(2012.04.18),我们决定将无我茶会的名称英译定为「Sans Self Tea Gathering」。sans 一词取自于莎士比亚剧作《皆大欢喜》,原为法文,是「无」,「没有」 和「不」的意思,莎士比亚借用此词形容人生七个阶段,意境深邃;后来sans一词被广泛应用于英语著作中,成为中古英语,沿用至今。gathering正表示聚会的意思,调整了ceremony被视为是一种仪轨的表现。名称英译如此一改就更接近创建者对「无我茶会」的诠释了。

Changing of Name in English (Spring, 2012)
Wu-Wo Tea Ceremony is now ‘Sans Self Tea Gathering’

When the concept and format was established in 1990, it was temporarily called the Wu-Wo Tea Ceremony in English, given the fact that it was organized to celebrate the realization of ‘Wu’, literally ‘no’, ‘the absence of’ or ‘void’. ‘Wo’, on the other hand, is ‘I’, ‘me’ or ‘self’. ‘Wu-Wo’ is thus best understood as ‘I who understand the idea of nothingness’. The term has been used ever since, before a more appropriate one comes along.
In spring, 2012, we coined the term “Sans Self Tea Gathering” which we thought is closer to the intention of the founders of this activity. Sans, an archaic French word meaning ‘without’, has been made popular by some of the greatest literary works through the ages, including William Shakespeare’s comedy “As You Like It”. To call it a tea gathering, instead of a tea ceremony, is to better reflect its nature. (English Translator : Katherine Yip英语翻译:叶德明)

无我茶会基本架构 Sans Self Tea Gathering: The Basic Model

蔡荣章-Rong-tsang Tsai

ISBN978-957-9690-08-9 无我茶会Sans Self Tea Gathering180,” First edition: 1999.9, Second edition: 2010.9《无我茶会180条》1999.9第一版 2010.9第二版 台北陆羽茶艺股份有限公司English Translator : Katherine Yip英语翻译:叶德明

无我茶会Sans Self Tea Gathering is a form of tea gathering that requires participants to bring along their own tea wares. Sitting in a circle, each participant is to brew four cups of tea, three of which will be offered to fellow tea drinkers on the right or left, saving the remaining to oneself.  As such, each person will be drinking four cups of tea. After the agreed rounds of brewing, everyone will pack up – this is when the ceremony comes to an end.

Picture below: Seats determined by random drawing – an absence of hierarchy.(1998无我茶会Sans Self Tea Gathering in Paris)

Seats will be determined by random drawing upon arrival. Each participant would have known the procedure and the way the ceremony is to be conducted, having receivednotification from the organizer beforehand. There is no event director or master of ceremonies during the congregation – everything will follow the pre-agreed arrangement. Quietly, each participant brews tea; there is no restriction as to the school or regional practices imposed on the style of the equipage and brewing technique.

After the last round of tea is taken, the organizer has the option of arranging a 5-minute session of music appreciation, to let the flavor settle in, or induce reflection on the tea ceremony. Other activities can also be arranged when the tea ceremony is over.

Such is the basic model of a 无我茶会Sans Self Tea Gathering. Here is a summary of the above:

1      Sitting in circle, everyone brews, serves and drinks tea.

2      Seats are determined by random drawing.

3      Tea is to be served to the person sitting next to you (on the left or right, in one direction).

4      Tea wares, tea leaves and water for brewing are to be brought along by the participants.

5   Number of cups and brewing, and the way to serve tea is agreed upon beforehand; the event flow is also pre-determined.

6   No talking is allowed throughout the ceremony.

Why is无我茶会Sans Self Tea Gathering conducted in such an unusual way? In essence, it represents theseven principles the ceremony embraces:

A.  Seats determined by random drawing – an absence of hierarchy

Before the ceremony begins, participants will have to take a seat. Each of them has to draw a number and be seated accordingly. There is no pre-determined seating; no one knows whom will they be seating next to, and serving tea to, until they are seated. There is no hierarchical differentiation and no difficulty in finding a seat – just the way we were born. Don’t you think things will be made difficult if we can choose the family to born into?

The same goes with tea gatherings for parents and their children.  The nature of random drawing is as such that children may not be serving tea to their own parents, and parents may not be offering tea to their own children. This is perhaps the perfect picture of the famous saying: “Respect the elderly as you would your parents, care for the young as you would your children”.

B.    Tea offered in one direction – no action of reciprocity is expected

Picture below: Tea offered in one direction – no action of reciprocity is expected(2007无我茶会Sans Self Tea Gathering in Korea)

When the tea is brewed, it is offered to the next person(s) in the same direction. If the number of cups agreed for the day is four, and three of them will be offered to fellow tea drinkers on the  left and the last one for oneself, it will be done exactly that way.

Tea is offered in cups during the first round; whereas, tea brewed during the second round will be poured into tea pitcher , which will then be poured into the cups you have offered. This means that person(s) being offered will be able to enjoy several rounds of your brew.

Alternative arrangements can be made. For example, one may be serving tea to the second, fourth and sixth fellow tea drinkers on the right, or the fifth, tenth and fifteenth fellow tea drinkers on the left, as long as the arrangement is made known before the ceremony begins. In sizable tea gatherings, the reach of tea serving can be extended.

A uni-directional flow of tea serving realizes the spirit of “expecting no reciprocity” – to put it simply, it is the appreciation of “doing something for nothing”, when a person doesn’t expect to be offered tea in return when he offers his. “Serving tea” is a laudable act in the Way of Tea. The experience is made even purer if we don’t have to worry about reciprocating.

For the sight-challenged, a person may serve tea to a fellow drinker on each side, while reserving one himself – this will save them the inconvenience of moving around to offer tea. In this circumstance, the spirit of mutual-help takes the place of reciprocity.

C.     Accepting and appreciating tea of all kinds – setting aside personal preferences

Each attendant of the 无我茶会Sans Self Tea Gathering will have to bring along their own tea. As highlighted in the notification, any type of tea is welcome. This way, a participant may get to sample a different tea in each cup offered. As advocated by the Way of Tea, a person is to accept and appreciate tea without letting personal preferences get in the way. As it goes, preference rules out things you don’t like, which could be something intrinsically wonderful. By rejecting, we could be depriving ourselves of the blessings in life. What 无我茶会Sans Self Tea Gathering reminds us is exactly this – we have to set aside personal likes and dislikes in order to develop amicable relationships and cultivate goodwill, wherever we go.

From green tea, oolong tea to black tea, each has its unique color, aroma and taste. As tea drinkers, it is important for us to brew, present and enjoy each accordingly.

Picture below:Accepting and appreciating tea of all kinds – setting aside personal preferences(2011-05-22无我茶会Sans Self Tea Gathering in London)(photo by chaya tea house)

D.    Making an effort to brew well – it is about getting better each time

There is no guarantee that each cup is masterfully brewed – chances are that a person will be served tea that is downright bitter and astringent, or bland and tasteless. When this is the case, there could be two types of emotional response: “Who made this? It is awful.” Or “I’ve messed up. Got to be careful.” As far as the Way of Tea goes, the latter attitude is encouraged, for the simple fact that “brewing a good pot”is basic. What is there to be explored if we can’t even brew our tea well? This is not unlike the study of music and art. It is pointless to talk about a certain realm induced by music when a person can’t even play the piano well; likewise, a person can’t possibly be elaborating on the use of lines and colours in bringing out a certain artistic mood if he hasn’t mastered the use of brushes. This is why no one is allowed to talk once the 无我茶会Sans Self Tea Gatheringbegins; there is only one mission – to brew a good pot.

When serving tea at the 无我茶会Sans Self Tea Gathering, we always reserve one for ourselves. This will enable us to assess the brewing, and make quick adjustment to improve during the next round.    A bad brew is a disgrace to ourselves, disservice to the others, and yes, to the tea brewed. Just as our seniors keep reminding us, doing one’s task well is the single most important element in a person’s self-cultivation.

E.     There is no event director or master of ceremonies – everything goes as agreed

The 无我茶会Sans Self Tea Gathering goes by pre-determined schedule and pre-agreed arrangement; there is no event director at the venue. If according to the schedule, venue set-up begins at 8.30, participants responsible for placing the seat number tag would be there on the dot. Participants responsible for drawing would have prepared the lots for fellow drinkers who begin arriving at 9, as scheduled. Seats will be taken according to the drawn lots. Participants will then lay out their tea wares, and socialize with fellow tea drinkers and admire others’ equipage. Brewing begins at 9.30, and that’s when everyone goes back to their seats, including those who were busy with drawing for seats a while ago.  Tea will be served according to the agreed way after the first round of brewing. When a person has been offered the agreed number of cups, he may begin drinking. Tea from the second brewing will be served with a tea pitcher, followed by drinking, and so on. When the agreed rounds of serving and drinking have been made, participants may stay in their original places to enjoy music (if it has been arranged), while relishing the unique tea experience. At the end of the music session, participants will wipe clean the tea cups they have used with tea towel or paper towel, and bring along a tea tray to collect their own cups. Participants are not expected to dispose of tea residue. The Tea Ceremony is over when all tea wares have been packed. There is nobody directing or conducting the event flow – nevertheless, it goes like clockwork.

When everything is pre-arranged and pre-agreed, what’s the point of having someone there directing? For regular participants of the 无我茶会Sans Self Tea Gathering, following agreed rules is like second nature.

F.     Observing silence during the Ceremony – appreciating mutual-understanding and the beauty of collective rhythm

When the “Tea ware appreciation and Socialization” time is up, everyone will stop talking and concentrate on brewing. In the course of brewing, participants will calm down, feel their own existence in this space, and appreciate their oneness with the world around. When tea is served, it is done in peace and silence. As participants offer tea to each other, they seem to have been strung by an invisible silk ribbon that moves rhythmically along with the gentle act of tea serving. In moments like these, words would be superfluous. There is no need for verbal expressions like “thank you” and “have some tea, please” – a slight bow, and a smile, will suffice.

The ideas of “silence” and “mutual-understanding” described here, as well as “the absence of directing” elaborated in the previous section, are pivotal to the success of a 无我茶会Sans Self Tea Gathering– only by keeping intervention to the minimum will it happen in as natural a way as the system of the universe, and the cycle of seasons.

G.    To each his own – there is no restriction as to the school or regional practice in brewing

At a 无我茶会Sans Self Tea Gathering, the method of brewing is subject to no restriction, and this applies to differences in tea ware and tea leaves preferred by tea drinkers as influenced by certain schools, styles or regional background. The choice between teapots and lidded cups , preference with tea leaves or powdered tea , and that of the method and style of brewing are not matters of concern.

Regardless of such differences as in equipage, tea leaves, attire, language and places of origin, the Tea Ceremony calls for an effort in brewing a good pot and sharing it with fellow drinkers, be they new or old acquaintances, as determined by random drawing.

You may wonder, if there is no restriction whatsoever as to the tea ware and brewing method, and participants are required to accept and appreciate teas that come their way, does it mean that brewing will become a matter of chance? Make no mistake; 无我茶会Sans Self Tea Gatheringdoes observe the principle of “Making an effort to brew well”. Once you have decided on the tea presentation setting and brewing method, you will have to come up with the best possible setting and brew at the time of the congregation.

Meanwhile, it is true that there is no special requirement as to the attire and protocol; and yet, with the same principle of “getting better each time”, they should be appropriate for the occasion.

无我茶会Sans Self Tea Gathering International Chronicle as below:

1990.12.18-1st. Taipei

1991.10.17-2nd. Wuyi Mountain

1992.11.09-3rd. Kyoto, Japan

1993.10.13-4th. Seoul and Iksan, Korea

1995.10.27-5th. Wuyi Mountain

1997.11.22-6th. Taipei

1999.10.16-7th.Hangzhou

2001.10.07-8th. Shizuoka, Japan

2004.08.21-9th. Singapore

2005.11.02-10th.Wuyi Mountain

2007.10.13-11th.Yishan, Korea

2009.10.17-12th.San Francisco,USA

2011.05.28-13th.Taipei

2013-14th.Korea

2015-15th.Hangzhou

无我茶会基本架构 无我茶会Sans Self Tea Gathering: The Basic Model

蔡荣章-Rong-tsang Tsai

ISBN978-957-9690-08-9 无我茶会Sans Self Tea Gathering 180,” First edition: 1999.9, Second edition: 2010.9《无我茶会180条》1999.9第一版 2010.9第二版 台北陆羽茶艺股份有限公司English Translator : Katherine Yip英语翻译:叶德明

无我茶会  是一种茶会形式,大家自备茶具,席地围成圈圈泡茶,倘若约定每人泡茶四杯,泡好茶就把三杯奉给左邻或右邻的三位茶侣,一杯留给自己,这样每人就都有四杯茶可喝。喝完约定的泡数,如泡三道茶,收拾好自己的茶具,结束茶会。

座次到了会场才临时抽签决定。茶会进行的程序、方法已经写在事先发给大家的「公告事项」内,所以茶会进行间并没有指挥与司仪,一切依排定的程序进行,大家也都安安静静地泡茶。茶具的种类与泡茶的方式不受任何流派与地域的限制。

喝完最后一道茶,可以安排五分钟以内的音乐欣赏,烘托茶味并回味茶会情境.也可以在茶会结束后进行其他活动。

以上就是无我茶会的基本形式,现将上面的叙述整理成条文:

1.围成圈圈,人人泡茶,人人奉茶,人人喝茶。

2.抽签决定座位。

3.依同一方向奉茶(向左或向右)。

4.自备茶具、茶叶与泡茶用水。

5.事先约定泡茶杯数、泡茶次数、奉茶方法,并排定会程。

6.席间不语。

无我茶会为什么要有上述的这些特殊做法呢?因为它包含了无我茶会的七大精神 :

一.抽签决定座位——无尊卑之分

茶会开始之前,要到会场安排座位,标示座次。与会人员到达后,抽号码签,然后依抽到的号码就坐。事先谁也不知道会坐在谁的旁边,谁也不知道会奉茶给谁喝。不但无尊卑之分,而且没有找座位的烦恼,就如同我们的出生,如果可以挑选自己的父母,烦恼可就大了,不是吗?

在亲子一同参加的茶会场合,抽签的结果,小朋友不一定奉茶给自己的爸爸妈妈,爸爸妈妈也不一定倒茶给自己的孩子喝,呈现出一幅「老吾老以及人之老,幼吾幼以及人之幼」的大同景象。

二.依同一方向奉茶——无报偿之心

泡完茶,大家依同一方向奉茶,如今天约定泡四杯,三杯奉给左邻的三位茶侣,最后一杯留给自己,那就依约定把茶奉出去。第一道是端着杯子出去奉茶,第二道以后是把泡好的茶盛在茶盅 内,端出去倒在自己奉出去的杯内,意思是被奉者可以喝到您泡的数道茶汤。

奉茶的方式也可以改为奉给右边第二、第四、第六位茶侣;也可以约定为:奉给左边第五、第十、第十五位茶侣,后者在大型茶会时可将交叉奉茶的幅度扩大。

同一方向奉茶是一种“无所为而为”的奉茶方式,我奉茶给他,并不因为他奉茶给我,这是无我茶会想要提醒大家「放淡报偿之心」的一种做法。「奉茶」本来就是茶道很好的一种作为,若能再忘掉报偿,那就更无牵挂了。

下图:依同一方向奉茶——无报偿之心(2010-10-01无我茶会在福建,漳州天福茶学院)

在以盲友为主的茶会,可以做这样的建议:每人奉茶给左右两位茶友与自己一杯,这时的「互助」取代了「报偿」,无需离座就可以完成奉茶的动作。

三.接纳、欣赏各种茶——无好恶之心

无我茶会的茶是自己带来的,而且在公告事项上是注明“种类不拘”,因此,每人喝到的数杯茶可能都是不一样的茶。茶道要求人们以超然的心情,接纳、欣赏各种茶,不要有好恶之心,因为好恶之心是不好的,会把很多“福气”排除在外,您不喜欢的东西往往并不是坏的东西,只是您不喜欢它而已,所以无我茶会提醒人们放淡好恶之心,广结善缘。

从绿茶、乌龙茶到红茶,各种茶有各自不同的色香味与个性,我们应该尊重它们,并以它们的立场冲泡它、表现它、欣赏它。

四.努力把茶泡好——求精进之心

每一个人喝到的数杯茶不一定都泡得很好,往往会喝到一杯泡得又苦又涩或淡而无味的茶,这时可能会有两种情绪反应:「哪一个人泡的?那么难喝。」或「泡坏了,我可要小心。」茶道上当然尊崇后者的态度,因为「泡好茶」是茶道最基本的要求,茶都泡不好,遑论其他大道理,有如学音乐,连琴都没能弹好,还谈什么以音乐表达某种境界?学美术,连彩笔都应用得不好,还谈什么以线条、色彩表现艺术的境界?所以无我茶会开始泡茶后就不准说话了,以便专心把茶泡好。

无我茶会奉茶时会为自己留一杯茶,就是便于了解自己的茶泡好了没有,有何缺失下一道赶紧补救。把茶泡坏了,对不起别人,对不起自己,也对不起茶。长辈常告诉我们:把一件事情做好是为人最重要的修养。

五.无需指挥与司仪——遵守公共约定

无我茶会是依事先排定的程序与约定的做法进行,会场上不再有人指挥。例如排定八点半布置会场,负责排放座位号码牌的茶友就要开始到场工作,九点报到,负责抽签的茶友就要将号码签准备好让与会的茶友抽签。抽完签的人依号码就坐,将茶具摆放出来,然后起身与其他茶友联谊,并参观别人带来的茶具。九点半开始泡茶,大家自动回到自己座位,负责报到抽签等工作的茶友这时也归队。泡完第一道茶,起来依约定的奉茶方式奉茶,自己被奉的数杯茶到齐之后开始喝茶。看大家大致喝完了第一道茶,开始冲泡第二道,泡妥第二道茶,持茶盅出去奉第二道茶,接着喝第二道茶……,喝完最后一道茶,若排定有品茗后音乐欣赏,则静坐原地,聆听音乐,回味回味刚才的情境。音乐结束后,将自己用过的杯子用茶巾  或纸巾擦拭一下,持奉茶盘  出去收回自己的杯子。不用清理茶渣,将自己的茶具收拾妥当,结束茶会。这期间没有人指挥,大家一个程序一个程序地依计划进行。

事先都已经排妥,并约定好了,为什么还要指挥?经常参加无我茶会,就可以养成遵守公共约定的习惯。

六.席间不语——培养默契,体现群体律动之美

“茶具观摩与联谊”时间一过,开始泡茶后就不可以说话了。等待茶叶浸泡期间,让自己沉静下来,体会一下自己存在于这个空间的感觉,体会一下自己与大地、与周遭事物结合的感觉。奉茶间,大家在一片宁静的气氛下,您奉茶给我,我奉茶给他,彼此间有如一条无形的丝带牵引着,展现一波波律动之美。这时的话语是多余的,甚至连「请喝茶」、「谢谢」的声音都是不必要的,大家照面时只要鞠个躬,微微一笑就够了。

这一节的「无声」、「默契」与上一节的「无需指挥」,让茶会的进行有如宇宙的运转、季节的更替那般自然,那么不露刀斧味。

七.泡茶方式不拘——无流派与地域之分

无我茶会的泡茶方式是不受限制的,这包括因流派、地域而造成茶具、茶叶的差异,如茶具可以是壶,可以是盖碗 ,茶叶可以是叶形茶 ,可以是粉末茶 ,以及泡茶方法、风格等都不受任何限制。

茶具不同、茶叶不同、服装不同、语言不同、国度地域不同,但大家在同一茶会方式下努力把自己带来的茶泡好,泡好了茶,恭恭敬敬地把茶奉给抽签遇到的认识或不认识的朋友。

下图:泡茶方式不拘——无流派与地域之分,但大家在同一茶会方式下努力把自己带来的茶泡好。(2011-10-17无我茶会在武夷山,无我茶会纪念石碑)

茶具、泡法不拘,又要接纳、欣赏各种茶,这不表示怎么泡都可以了吗?但是无我茶会有「求精进之心」一条,当您选定了茶席与泡茶的方式,就要把茶席布置得您当时所能的最好,将茶泡到您当时可能的最好。

服装不拘、也不要求与会者执行过多礼貌,但在「求精进之心」的原则下,两者都要做出合符当时情景的需要。

以下是历届国际无我茶会一览表:

1990.12.18-一届台北

1991.10.17-二届武夷山

1992.11.09-三届日本京都

1993.10.13-四届韩国首尔

1995.10.27-五届武夷山

1997.11.22-六届台北

1999.10.16-七届杭州

2001.10.07-八届日本静冈

2004.08.21-九届新加坡

2005.11.02-十届武夷山

20071013.十一届韩国益山

2009.10.17-十二届美国旧金山

2011.05.28-十三届台北

2013年的第14届将在韩国举办

2015年的第15届将在中国杭州举行

 

  (1076)