Category Archives: N-1茶思想-中英文The Ideology of tea.Chinese-English

N-1茶思想-中英文The Ideology of tea.Chinese-English

The Laying out and Design of Tea Presentation Setting -Rong-Tsang Tsai

茶席设置与茶席设计   The Laying out and Design of Tea Presentation Setting

蔡荣章Rong-Tsang Tsai

20120125周三小方块WEDNESDAY TEA CORNER

When tea culture has reached a certain level of development, people will inevitably turn their attention to the brewing utensils, the tea presentation setting and the environment under which tea is served – they will demand more sophistication for each of those. The term ‘tea presentation setting’ emerged after the 1990s, first in Taiwan, then Malaysia, and then China and the rest. Subsequently, there have been exhibitions on the design of these settings.  As the emphasis is put on design, beautification and innovation takes centre stage and everyone is competing to stand out from the pack. With this prevailing thinking, presentation has become visually appealing at the expense of functionality and rationality of tea brewing. Some exhibitions are more of tea ware showcases – no one worries if the designer knows anything about tea brewing at all; worse still, some occasions have become a channel for marketing tea ware, or showpieces for tea brewers to strut their feathers.

This mentality could be understood at the dawn of a revival of the tea culture – a fascinating or Zen-packaged appearance will succeed in capturing people’s attention before more profound substance is developed. And yet, in the post-2010 era, tea culture has matured with ample contents, which should rightfully be presented in the tea presentation setting, the way tea is brewed and the tea infusion itself.  As such, there should be a shift of attention – from design to layout.

While laying out and designing a tea presentation setting may refer to the same thing, the emphasis is different. The former tends to remind people of the tea brewing function, while the latter directs one’s attention to the visual impact. Sure enough, aesthetics plays an important role; but even more important is tea brewing, the convenience for tea brewing and serving, as well as the integrity and refinement of the entire experience. Sacrificing the requirement of flawlessness in tea brewing and tea serving for the sake of appearance is unacceptable. For tea brewing and serving, the requirements include free supply of water, mastering of temperature, ease of water pouring, tidiness of tea ware, elegance in tea appreciation, convenience for tea ware placement, efficient filtering of tea residue, graceful tea serving and appropriate supply of tea snacks. Only when functionality is attained with uninterrupted smoothness will tea brewers be able to bring out the inherent flavor and unique state of tea.

What we want to stress is a work station, and not a stage, where a tea brewer comes up with a good pot. The person has to concentrate on brewing, and not be distracted by the effect of something of a performance. This is the only way for us to take in the innermost substance of tea culture – great tea infusion, well-paired tea snacks, the elegant act of a tea brewer, and the fine touches of service.

The evolution of tea presentation setting layout and design does not apply to traditional Japanese matcha and English afternoon tea, because there has been a set way for both. This evolution only refers to the modern new tea culture (as mentioned above) that emerged after the 1980s in Taiwan, Malaysia and China, among others. With an emphasis on laying out rather than designing, we wish to develop a distinct tea culture that put the emphasis back on tea brewing, serving and drinking.

(Translator:Katherine Yip.2012.07.18)

 

 

  (1540)

茶席设置与茶席设计 -蔡荣章

茶席设置与茶席设计   The Laying out and Design of Tea Presentation Setting

蔡荣章Rong-Tsang Tsai

20120125周三小方块WEDNESDAY TEA CORNER

茶文化发展到一定程度,大家就会讲究起完善的泡茶用具、优雅的泡茶席与品茗环境,1990年代后,先是台湾,后是马来西亚,再是中国等其他地方兴起了“茶席设计”这个词句,也经常有所谓的茶席设计展。既然是茶席设计,所以就从茶席的美化与创意着手,尽可能突显自己,在这样的思想引导下,争奇斗艳在所难免,于是茶席是突显了,但泡茶的功能性与合理性常被忽略,变成有如茶具展,甚至忽略设计茶席的那个人会不会泡茶,有时还变成是推销茶具的手段,或是泡茶者的炫耀方式。

茶文化复兴初期,这种现象可以被理解的,因为深沉的内涵尚未被培育完成,绚丽或以禅味包装的外表暂且还可吸引人们的注意,但在2010年代以后,茶文化的实质内容已臻成熟,这些内容应该浮现在茶席上、在人们的泡茶上、在茶汤的呈现上,所以要从茶席设计的观念改变为茶席设置。

茶席设置与茶席设计是可以視为同意词,但重点不一样,茶席设置是如何设置茶席,茶席设计是如何设计茶席,前者比较容易提醒人们注意到茶席上的泡茶功能,后者比较容易引导人们去规划出茶席的视觉效果。审美效果在茶席设置上是很重要的一环,但泡茶、奉茶的方便性、完整性,以及精致度更为重要,不可为了美观而损伤泡茶奉茶的完美要求。泡茶功能包括给水不愁、控温方便、冲水自如、茶器整洁、赏茶优雅、置茶顺手、滤渣无虞、奉茶得心、茶食供应又能那么适切。唯有在功能上有了高度圆融性,才能令泡茶者专心把茶的美味与境界呈现出来。

我们要强调泡茶席是泡茶者创造他茶汤作品的工作台,而不强调是泡茶者的表演舞台,他要专注于茶汤作品的创作而不要分神于表演的效果。如此,我们才可以将茶文化的实质内容,包括泡得很好的茶汤、搭配得很恰当的茶食、泡茶者优雅的动作与细心的服务统统吃进肚子里。

以上茶席设置与茶席设计的演进概念不存在于日本传统的抹茶道与英国传统的下午茶,因为他们已经有了固定的模式,而是1980年代后在台湾、马来西亚、中国等地兴起的现代新茶文化形式(如前面所说的那种呈现方式与要求) 。我们希望从茶席设置的观念开始,更明确地发展出以泡茶奉茶品茶为主的茶文化。

  (1646)

The Diversified Nature and Schools of the Way of Tea-Rong-tsang Tsai

The Diversified Nature and Schools of the Way of Tea

蔡荣章Rong-tsang Tsai

 2004.03《茶艺》月刊社论The Editorial of “Tea Culture Monthly”

 Some people asked, “When it comes to the Way of Tea, are there different schools in China?” Our answer is affirmative. As long as it prospers in a place, the Way of Tea is almost certain to assume different forms. The differences are not very obvious in China, and there is no assertive effort in the formation of different schools. Meanwhile, people do not mind others tampering with or re-creating existing ideas. In this episode, we seek to illustrate this concept by likening it to a theatrical production whereby audiences hop on to the stage and actively participate.

The scenario goes like this: The theatre is putting on an opera by a certain playwright. The opera, with distinct title, storyline and ideas and thoughts, is very well received. A full-housed production, it has captivated all the audiences who simply hold their breath in awe. Soon after, many of them have grasped hold of the dramatic and musical essence. There is a free flow of ideas in their mind, stimulating their own creative urge. As the plot intensifies, many are seen fidgeting in their seats, while some of them have hopped on to the stage and joined the performance. For a start, these audiences sing and dance along, following largely the style of the original work. However, not longer after, there is a surge of passion and the opera takes on a life of its own, steering away from the original plot. Those who have remained seated are inspired by the new plot – the ideas they have been toying with up until this moment need a stage. Everyone rush up. There is no telling which direction the opera is heading towards — whether it will return to the original track laid down by the original playwright, or it will become an entirely different plot.

Perhaps, you will remark, “I will guard my work in such a way that no one will be able to tamper with it, and change my ideas. “ You may also say with conviction, “My work will win over all the audiences and go down in history as a great one because I have come up with the tightest-knitted plot, compelling ideas and profound thoughts.”

You may be able to refute what the others have said; you may also protect your works by legal means, while you are alive. And yet, you cannot stop others building on the structure you have laid. What’s more, your work will age as time goes by. To make it clearer, if the Way of Tea is an opera, it is one that every can perform in. They can’t stop you scripting or composing it the way you want; but likewise, no one can stop them from preferring and developing a certain part of it. A good script will have more followers performing frequently; a poor one will simply be neglected. With the passage of time, all the scripts will undergo certain degree of amendment. We should not feel sorry about this. The changes will be even more unpredictable with the lapse of time, and when you are gone.

For the Way of Tea, you may script your own, but there’s no stopping of others amending and re-creating what you have completed.  What matters most is the source of the biggest influence and the greatest impact, and the reach and duration of such.

(Translator:Katherine Yip.2012.04.17)

  (1350)

茶道的多元本质与流变-蔡荣章

茶道的多元本质与流变The Diversified Nature and Schools of the Way of Tea

蔡荣章Rong-tsang Tsai

 2004.03《茶艺》月刊社论The Editorial of “Tea Culture Monthly”

有人问起中国有没有茶道流派?我们的回答是「有的」,只要茶道在一个地区蓬勃发展,一定会演变成多种不同的面貌,但在中国,流派的形成不太明显,大家不太在意于成立自己的流派,也不太在意别人的篡改与再创作。本文以一出戏的上演,引来观众纷纷跳上舞台参与演出的寓言式手法来申论这个观念。

台上正演着一出由某剧作家创作的歌剧,它有标题,也有故事结构与其所要表达的理念及思想。歌剧一开始就镇慑了剧院的满场观众,观众在短短的时间内,很快就体会到了戏剧与音乐的境界,于是引发了许多人的联想,也激发了很多观众创作的冲动。剧情强度不断升高,有人开始坐立不安,有人已经跳上舞台,加入了演出的行列。开始时跳上舞台的观众大多跟随着原著的路线或歌或舞,但不一会儿,就起了激情的转变,从原剧的轨迹冲出了新的曲调。台下看到新的剧情发展,原本已经浮上心头的念头更加促使自己采取行动,一伙人都冲上了舞台。这出戏将如何发展我们不得而知,或许最后还是回归到原作者的主轴,或许产生了另一种剧情模式。

您或许要说,我会严加把关,不许任何人篡改我的作品、变更我的主义;您也许很有把握地说,我的作品有最严谨的结构、强烈的理念与思想,观众只有折服于我的创作,我的主义将永垂不朽。

然而,您在世的时候,您可以力斥他人的不同言论,您可以拿著作权法加以保护,但您无法管得了他人在您的架构之上另行构筑,而且随着时间的转移,您的作品也会显得陈旧。进一步再说,茶道这出戏是人人会唱会演,人人能唱能演,何人管得您的剧本如何写?他要取舍哪些部分谁也无法干涉。您的剧本好,大家多唱多演,否则不唱不演,在星移斗转之下,任何的剧本都将受到修正,我们无需痛惜,何况当您不在人间之后、时间久远之后,变化更是无法预料。

茶道的剧本可以由您执笔,但大家随时可以加以修订或再行创作,只看谁的力量大,激起的浪花高,主导的范围大、时间长。

 

  (1109)

Certification of a Devotee-Rong-Tsang Tsai

为茶界修道者颁证Certification of a Devotee

蔡荣章Rong-Tsang Tsai

20111019周三小方块 WEDNESDAY TEA CORNER

Why devotees, when we are discussing modern tea thoughts, you may ask. I am referring, of course, to tea brewing masters 1. They, as a matter of fact, are pursuing a path in the manner of devotees. These ‘devotees’ seek to perfect their brewing technique and equip themselves with ample knowledge about tea. When this is done, they will be able to not only enlighten themselves, but also the others, and spread the tea culture far and wide. As such, certification for tea brewing masters is granted in much the same way as that of the induction of devotees pursuing a spiritual path.

When it comes to pursuing certain paths, there are different types of devotees — tea brewers, members of a religious order and Buddhist monks included. They will be informed of certain restrictions and rules, and would be asked if they are willing to abide by such. If their answer to the masters or witnesses is a clear and bold affirmation, they will be formally accepted for the procedure leading to the certification or monastic ordination.

At the back of the ordination platform at the Jietai Si (Ordination Terrace Temple) in Beijiing where ceremony commemorating a devotee to full monkhood is taken place, there is a plaque with the expression “Shu Jing Jin Chuang2, which serves as a reminder that one must continue to be invigorated and energetic in one’s cause of devotion. Tea brewing masters must realize and practise specific mindset and code of behaviour.  They have to understand the importance of brewing a good pot of tea, because this is the way to expressing the art and thinking through tea; and only with this, people will be inducted into the world of beauty.  These brewing masters will have to practise brewing daily after obtaining the certification. This way, they will be able to immerse themselves, the surrounding and the people around in a world of great aesthetics.

I would like to share this tribute to tea brewers chanted as a curtain-raiser of the Certificate Presentation Ceremony:

Tea Brewing Master is a qualification,

And a responsibility.

They are entrusted to spread the tea culture worldwide.

Brewing the best possible pot of tea, they must,

And bring out the art and thinking through tea.

Brewing the best possible pot of tea, we must,

And let the others appreciate the beauty in tea,

While realizing life’s many lessons in a cup.

Brewing the best possible pot of tea, we must,

Because this is the way to enrich our culture.

And through a good pot of tea,

We will seek to raise the level of tea culture,

To give people the gift of health,

And to spread harmony and peace across land and oceans.

Today, I have passed the test and am named a Tea Brewing Master.

This goal will always come to my mind.

I will pursue the Way of Tea as the following motto in mind:

Brewing a good pot is the physical training of a Tea Brewer,

Brewing a good pot is the pursuit of the Way of Tea,

Brewing a good pot is the essence to experiencing the World of Tea.3

以下为文内之编码Coding in the text:

1 tea brewing masters 泡茶师

2 Shu Jing Jin Chuang“树精进幢”

3 Brewing a good pot is the physical training of a Tea Brewer,

Brewing a good pot is the pursuit of the Way of Tea,

Brewing a good pot is the essence to experiencing the World of Tea.

泡好茶是茶人体能的训练,

泡好茶是茶道追求的途径,

泡好茶是茶境感悟的本体。

 (Translator:Katherine Yip.2012.07.18)

 

(1270)

为茶界修道者颁证-蔡荣章

为茶界修道者颁证Certification of a Devotee

蔡荣章Rong-Tsang Tsai

20111019周三小方块 WEDNESDAY TEA CORNER

现代茶思想的领域怎么说起了修道人,事实上现在要谈的是泡茶师1,因为泡茶师也是修道者,他把泡茶的功夫练好,茶学的知识备够,然后还要自渡渡人,宣扬茶文化。所以泡茶师的颁证意义是与修道者的颁证一致的。

修道者有很多个类型,诸如泡茶师、修士、和尚,通常都会宣告一些道上的约束与规矩,然后询问受戒或受证者接不接受这些戒律,如果勇敢地在师傅与见证者面前大声说出: 我愿意,那就进入授证、剃度的程序。

北京戒台寺的戒台上,背着受戒者那面墙上挂着一块横扁,刻着“树精进幢”2,提醒大家在受戒后要在心中悬着精进的牌子自勉。泡茶师是有一些必须体认与执行的精神、行为指标的,他要领悟到把一壶茶泡好的重要,因为只有如此才能表现以茶为载体的艺术和思想,然后才能增加引导人们进入美丽领域的途径。泡茶师在取得证书后,还得天天练习泡茶,天天用茶美化自己、美化环境、美化周遭的人们。

以下是泡茶师颁证典礼在合唱拉开序幕后朗诵的一段颂词:

泡茶师,这是一个资格认定的名词;

是一个承载责任的称乎。

泡茶师背负着传播世界茶文化的重担,

泡茶师要将一壶茶表现得最好,

用以表现以茶为载体的艺术和思想。

我们要将一壶茶表现得最好,

让人们从中体会到茶汤的美,

领悟到蕴含其间的人生哲理。

我们要将一壶茶表现得最好,

因为只有这样,才会有更多的文化内涵产生。

我们还要通过这个途径,

将茶文化提升到精致的境界,

将健康带给人们,

将祥和之气带到世界的每个角落。

今天,我经历考验,获得「泡茶师」这个称谓,

我将谨记上述目标,

并以如下箴言作为追求茶道生活的准则:

泡好茶是茶人体能的训练,

泡好茶是茶道追求的途径,

泡好茶是茶境感悟的本体。3

以下为文内之编码Coding in the text:

1泡茶师 tea brewing masters

2“树精进幢”Shu Jing Jin Chuangwhich serves as a reminder that one must continue to be invigorated and energetic in one’s cause of devotion.

3泡好茶是茶人体能的训练,

泡好茶是茶道追求的途径,

泡好茶是茶境感悟的本体。

Brewing a good pot is the physical training of a Tea Brewer,

Brewing a good pot is the pursuit of the Way of Tea,

Brewing a good pot is the essence to experiencing the World of Tea.

(1035)

Brewing technique is far from being skin-deep-Rong-tsang Tsai

学会削皮才能吃到肉Brewing technique is far from being skin-deep

蔡荣章Rong-tsang Tsai

 2001.06《茶艺》月刊社论The Editorial of “Tea Culture Monthly”

Tea gurus learn to brew tea in much the same way as musicians play piano or painters paint – they learn to master the very medium by which the Way of Tea, Music or Paintings is to be expressed. There is no way to get to the heart of these artistic pursuits if the people involved fail to acquire the basics. Furthermore, the artistic frame of mind is attached to the end results of the very act of tea brewing, piano playing or picture painting. A crude work of art will only create an artistic frame of mind that is equally unrefined.

 The Tea Brewers Assessment Examination 1, initiated in Taiwan, has since covered both sides of the Straits. For three decades as of May 2005, the examination has seen 345 tea brewers awarded with the qualification. Over time, these tea brewers, who began with the simple aim of being certified as a professional, have forged ahead to explore the vast world of tea culture. As seen in the recent monthly gatherings, they chant tea poems, study flower arrangement for tea presentation setting 2, delve into the aesthetics of tea advocated by Lu Yu, try and trace the origin of ‘Zen in Tea, Tea in Zen’3…. These are certainly not in the syllabus of the Tea Brewers Assessment Examination; neither are these follow-up tasks required. Such initiatives can only come from the tea brewers themselves – with the ability to brew a good pot, they have cultivated a habit of brewing and enjoying tea, and participating in activities related to the tea culture. This has further developed into a special feeling they have towards the beverage, which propels them to pursue tea on different fronts and at different levels; in most cases, they are rewarded with enlightened ideas. Without such innate bonding between the person and tea, any research assignment on tea culture given by the instructors at school will be mundane as in mere categorization of information; or detached as there is a lack of heartfelt enthusiasm.

Some people have criticized that the Tea Brewers Assessment Examination goes round and around at the level of tea brewing technique, which they describe as superficial. What they have failed to realize is that if one can’t play the piano (or for that matter, any kind of musical instrument) well, what is there to shape the musical frame of mind? If one can’t even paint well and master their lines and colours, what is there to express the artistic frame of mind? Some have gone to the extent of saying ‘the only thing matter is in the thinking and frame of mind when it comes to the Way of Tea’; or, ‘there is nothing else but that which showcase the charisma of a musician and a painter’. If this is the case, it is nothing short of crude and ludicrous.

To us, brewing a good pot4 is a physical training for tea gurus, not unlike the daily running athletes have to go through. Should this be considered skin-deep, my advice is, go get an orange – no one can get to the juicy pulp before peeling the skin!

 

以下为文內之编码Coding in the text:

1.Tea Brewers Assessment Examination泡茶师检定考试

2.flower arrangement for tea presentation setting茶席的插花

3.‘Zen in Tea, Tea in Zen’「茶禅一味」

4.brewing a good pot泡好茶

Introduction:

The aesthetics, character and the state of mind created are not to be undermined in the understanding and enjoyment of tea; and yet, they are the hardest to express.  Writings on the thoughts pertaining to tea, regardless of languages used, remain scarce.   We have attempted to express them in Chinese, with accompanying English translation(Translator:Katherine Yip.2010.01), to elaborate our thoughts as they are. What we want is to share the knowledge of tea alongside tea drinking.  This is, in our opinion, an important contemporary task in promoting the tea culture (Coding in the text is for cross-referencing of the academic terms of tea).

  (1138)

学会削皮才能吃到肉-蔡荣章

学会削皮才能吃到肉Brewing technique is far from being skin-deep

蔡荣章Rong-tsang Tsai

 2001.06《茶艺》月刊社论The Editorial of “Tea Culture Monthly”

茶人们的学泡茶就如同音乐家的学弹琴、画家的学画,都是为表现茶道、音乐与绘画境界所必须的媒介,如果这道工夫未下,根本进不了这些艺术项目的核心。再说,这些艺术项目的境界亦依附在泡茶、弹琴、绘画所完成的作品上,如果作品是粗糙的,那表现的境界亦是粗糙的。

从台湾开始实施,现已扩及海峡两岸的泡茶师检定考试1,到二○○五年五月已举办了30届,取得泡茶师证书者已累积到345人,这些原本只检测能泡好茶的泡茶师,经多年的历练,很多人已开始往茶文化更深更广的领域迈进,从最近他们几乎每月的聚会活动上看到,有人练习起了茶诗的吟唱,有人研究了茶席的插花2,有人从古文献中探讨了陆羽的茶道美学,有人追究起「茶禅一味」3的缘由……。这些发展的途径都不是原先泡茶师检定考试必考的范围,也不是这项制度明订的后续任务,但就因为这些人具备了泡好茶的能力,因此养成了泡茶、喝茶、参加茶文化活动的习惯,进一步与茶产生了感情,所以属于茶的种种就变成了他们追寻的目标,而且容易有所收获与创见。在没有上述这些因缘之前,若只从学校指导老师的分派下取得了茶文化研究课题,结果往往不是仅及于资料的归类整理、就是缺乏切身的感动。

有人批评泡茶师检定考试只在泡茶技法上打转,追求的只是茶道的皮毛,他们没留意到这才是根本,如果连琴(广意的琴)都弹不好,如何用声音来表现音乐的境界?如果连画都画不好,如何以线条与色彩来表达美术的意境?有些人认为「直指茶道思想与境界即可」、「直接表现音乐家与画家应有的风采即可」。要知道果真如此,那是粗糙而且可笑的。

我们认为泡好茶4是茶人们的一种体能训练,就如同运动员的每天跑步,如果有人认为那只是皮毛的事情,那就告诉他,总要先学会削皮才能吃到肉呀。

 

以下为文內之编码Coding in the text:

1.泡茶师检定考试Tea Brewers Assessment Examination

2.茶席的插花

flower arrangement for tea presentation setting

3.「茶禅一味」‘Zen in Tea, Tea in Zen’

4.泡好茶brewing a good pot

 

说明:

茶的“美”、茶的“性” 、茶的“境”是认识茶、享受茶的重要途径,但这部分不容易表述。有关茶道思想方面的文章,无论那种语文,都颇缺乏,现在我们试着用华文描述,再请专人译成 英文,使我们想要表达的尽量以其原始面貌呈现,让各地的读者能一起共享喝茶的乐趣。我们也认为这是当代很重要的茶文化推广工作。本茶道术语翻译及审定工作 始于2010.01月,一直持续进行中。英文翻译:Katharine Yip。(文内之编码系方便中英对照之茶道术语)

 

  (1047)

‘Emptiness and Solitude’, a Way of Tea-Rong-tsang Tsai

谈茶道的「空寂」‘Emptiness and Solitude’, a Way of Tea

蔡荣章Rong-tsang Tsai

2001.02《茶艺》月刊社论The Editorial of “Tea Culture Monthly”

 ‘Emptiness and Solitude’1. is one of the more obscure aesthetic concepts.  Its association to the Way of Tea2. may be rooted in the inherent ‘bitterness’ and ‘astringency’3. of the beverage. To explore this association, let’s try and describe this concept in its aesthetical reference and state.

Simplicity and frugality4., purity and harmony5., emptiness and solitude6. are some of the descriptions associated with the Way of Tea. In Japanese, the word closest in meaning to the phrase ‘emptiness and solitude’ would suggest a kind of sad forlornness or dejection.  Understandably, dejection comes with a sense of loneliness. As it goes, the state of mind of solitude leads to profound tranquility, when one is free from excitement or over stimulation.  In this condition, the blood pressure lowers and the heart beats slow down. Tea drinking in a ‘Tea Hut Setting’7. advocated by tea masters such as Murata Shako8.,Takeno Jogo9.and Sen no Rikyu10. not only signifies humility, but also cultivates the aesthetical state of ‘emptiness and solitude’.

A person in a state of ‘emptiness and solitude’ will have a keener sense of his own existence. What’s more, he will be more sensitive to his relationship with the land, fellow human beings and objects. Training in the state of ‘emptiness and solitude’ helps tea gurus11. in tea brewing and appreciation. This also applies to a group of people brewing and drinking together.  Some even oppose to the playing of music during tea brewing and drinking, in a bid to achieve a condensed experience.  Concentration is expected to add to the ambience.

The equilibrium of daily life is tipped by our emotions. The practice of ‘emptiness and solitude’ will help us guard against emotional turmoil, and protect us by putting us in a space of tranquility. This training will enable one to brew a good pot of tea, be it under the eyes of the public, by the side of a busy road, or in the presence of unfriendly company.

In aesthetics, the training of ‘emptiness and solitude’ aims at transcending the functional side of reality when we look at the world around us.  Take for instance a heap of scrap metal by the roadside.  If we manage to detach ourselves from the opinions such as “from an old house”, “rusty”, “useless”, “hit and be injured”, but rather look at its texture, lines and formation, it may remind us of an award-clinching piece of art that we have come across in an art museum before! This way, the ugly, the mundane and the common will be eliminated by the day. The good and the bad will not be distorted if only we can observe them with calmness.

以下为文内之编码Coding in the text:

1.‘Emptiness and Solitude’「空寂」

2. Way of Tea茶道

3.‘bitterness’and‘astringency’「苦」、「涩」

4. Simplicity and frugality「精俭」

5. purity and harmony「清和」

6. emptiness and solitude「空寂」.「侘」

7.‘Tea Hut Setting’「草庵式茶席」

8. Murata Shako村田珠光

9. Takeno Jogo武野绍鸥

10.Sen no Rikyu千利休

11.tea gurus茶人

Introduction:The aesthetics, character and the state of mind created are not to be undermined in the understanding and enjoyment of tea; and yet, they are the hardest to express.  Writings on the thoughts pertaining to tea, regardless of languages used, remain scarce.   We have attempted to express them in Chinese, with accompanying English translation(Translator:Katherine Yip.2010.01), to elaborate our thoughts as they are. What we want is to share the knowledge of tea alongside tea drinking.  This is, in our opinion, an important contemporary task in promoting the tea culture (Coding in the text is for cross-referencing of the academic terms of tea).

 

 

  (1387)

什么是茶道的「空寂」-蔡荣章

什么是茶道的「空寂」‘Emptiness and Solitude’, a Way of Tea

蔡荣章Rong-tsang Tsai

 2001.02《茶艺》月刊社论The Editorial of “Tea Culture Monthly”

「空寂」1.是美学上的一种不易理解的境界,然而在茶道2.上特别被人提出,或许它是「茶」特有的一种性格吧。我们曾在别的地方谈到茶永远有着「苦」、「涩」3.的一面,应该就是这个道理。现在我们以简捷的一些字眼来说明空寂是怎样一个美学境界与状况。

谈到「茶道境界」,很多用语会出现,如「精俭」4.、「清和」5.、「空寂」6.……,「空寂」在日本茶道上最接近的用语是「侘」6.(音岔,后来有人也用成「佗」,音驼。),侘,在中文是失意的样子,如「侘傺」。「空寂」也有「失意」的成分,所以带有一丝丝的「凄凉感」,这样的心情、这样的氛围造成了极度宁静的状态,它比哀伤或愉悦更为不动气,人们的血压更低、心跳更慢。日本茶道界村田珠光8.、武野绍鸥9.、到千利休10.等人提倡的「草庵式茶席」7.,除了谦卑等意义之外,也提出了这样的美学与心境思想。

空寂让人更专注、更容易体会到自己的存在、体会到自己与大地、与他人、与他物的关系。空寂的训练让茶人11.更容易泡好茶、更容易欣赏到茶的味道,即使多人一同泡茶、品饮,也能掌握同样的效果。有人泡茶、品饮间不搭配音乐,就是希望让「茶」的浓度增强,单一、专注,是可以让所需的气氛、磁场一再放大的。

生活中,各种喜怒哀乐的冲击在所难免,空寂的训练让自己受保护于一个宁静且坚实的空间。茶道的空寂训练是在众目睽睽之下,在车水马龙的路旁,在极端不友善的人际关系间依然稳健地把茶泡好。

在审美的训练上,「空寂」是训练自己超脱现实、超脱功能地看待事与物,如路旁的一堆废铁,不从「旧屋拆下」、「生锈」、「无用」、「撞上受伤」的角度看,而从物体的质感,线条的组合去欣赏,说不定你会联想起美术馆里的那件得奖作品。如此,身边的庸俗、丑陋就会变得更少。然而,是非、善恶在冷静观察中是不会被扭曲的。

以下为文内之编码Coding in the text:

1.「空寂」‘Emptiness and Solitude’

2.茶道Way of Tea

3.「苦」、「涩」‘bitterness’and‘astringency’

4.「精俭」Simplicity and frugality

5.「清和」purity and harmony

6.「空寂」.「侘」emptiness and solitude

7.「草庵式茶席」‘Tea Hut Setting’

8.村田珠光Murata Shako

9.武野绍鸥Takeno Jogo

10.千利休Sen no Rikyu

11.茶人tea gurus

说明:茶的“美”、茶的“性” 、茶的“境”是认识茶、享受茶的重要途径,但这部分不容易表述。有关茶道思想方面的文章,无论那种语文,都颇缺乏,现在我们试着用华文描述,再请专人译成 英文,使我们想要表达的尽量以其原始面貌呈现,让各地的读者能一起共享喝茶的乐趣。我们也认为这是当代很重要的茶文化推广工作。本茶道术语翻译及审定工作始于2010.01月,一直持续进行中。英文翻译:Katharine Yip。(文内之编码系方便中英对照之茶道术语)

 

  (1212)

A Matter of Effort: Tea Brewers putting in as many hours of practice as Pianists -Rong-tsang Tsai

我们在泡茶上所下的功夫有没有输给学琴的人  A Matter of Effort: Tea Brewers putting in as many hours of practice as Pianists 

蔡荣章Rong-tsang Tsai

(2004.06《茶艺》月刊社论The Editorial of “Tea Culture Monthly”)

We aspire to having ‘the Way of Tea’1. incorporated into our school  in the same way as fine arts, music and physical exercise. Our idea is, there should not be any decision-making involved based on the kind of job opportunities this field of study promises. Rather, it should be an integral part of life’s education. What follows will be the natural fulfilment of its function in cultivating one’s personality and enhancing the aesthetics of life. At that juncture, we would ask for one thing: practise hard.

During one of the review meetings of the Tea Brewers Examination 2., a tea drinker raised this question: while a person has to put in hours of practice each day over an extended period of time to be recognized as a pianist, tea brewers are seen exchanging pleasantries or trading jokes when they are brewing tea in a leisurely manner – is this the Way to become an expert? This put me in deep thought. My reflection is, it is not unusual to have tea drinkers practising tea brewing up to 8 hours, in some cases 10 hours, a day for a couple of months before the examination takes place. It is unknown, though, if they practise as hard when the examination is over. It is possible that the concept of ‘practising hard’ is not as strong among tea brewers as people studying music and painting, for the simple reason that the education pertaining to the Way of Tea is not as widespread and in-depth as that of music and painting.

As everyone pursuing music and art can testify, it takes tremendous hard work on one’s musical (singing included) and painting abilities to bring out what’s there in the realm of art. By the same token, tea gurus 3. will have to understand, and be convinced, that brewing is the basis on which the Way of Tea is presented and realized. Tea brewing as a skill has to be practised daily to ensure that one has full control of the tea infusion 4.

Tea gurus in general may not have gone deep enough when it comes to the Way of Tea. They may not have realized that it is more than exquisite tea ware and beautiful attire, alongside flower arrangement 5. and incense burning 6.; it has a lot more to do with the tea gurus’ own tea brewing prowess, namely their mastering of the mood, thinking and aesthetics. Such mastery will have to be built upon one’s technique, knowledge and appreciation of tea and tea brewing – which could only be attained by practising hard.

Musicians and painters express art through works of music and paintings, which are then shared with, and acquired by, the public in concerts and exhibitions. Tea gurus are entitled to such impact and value – brew well to bring out the essence of tea, and invite people to pay for this enjoyment.

We often use music or painting to illustrate the idea and value of the Way of Tea. Today, we have taken a step further to demonstrate how essential techniques, just as in the case of music and painting, matter. Tea brewing is pivotal to the Way of Tea. Meanwhile, there is a ‘price tag’ attached to the Way of Tea, besides that which is attached to the tealeaves. The Way of Tea does have its worldly worth, and we are hopeful that its value is on the upswing.

以下为文內之编码Coding in the text:

1.‘the Way of Tea’ 「茶道」

2.Tea Brewers Examination泡茶师考试

3.tea gurus 茶人

4.tea infusion茶汤

5.flower arrangement插花

6.incense burning焚香

Introduction:The aesthetics, character and the state of mind created are not to be undermined in the understanding and enjoyment of tea; and yet, they are the hardest to express.  Writings on the thoughts pertaining to tea, regardless of languages used, remain scarce.   We have attempted to express them in Chinese, with accompanying English translation(Translator:Katherine Yip.2010.01), to elaborate our thoughts as they are. What we want is to share the knowledge of tea alongside tea drinking.  This is, in our opinion, an important contemporary task in promoting the tea culture (Coding in the text is for cross-referencing of the academic terms of tea).

                                                                                                                                                                                    (1253)

我们在泡茶上所下的功夫有没有输给学琴的人-蔡荣章

我们在泡茶上所下的功夫有没有输给学琴的人  A Matter of Effort: Tea Brewers putting in as many hours of practice as Pianists 

蔡荣章Rong-tsang Tsai

(2004.06《茶艺》月刊社论The Editorial of “Tea Culture Monthly”)

我们一直希望「茶道」1.能与「美术」、「音乐」、「体育」一样,成为教育体系中基础课程的一环,不是在思考学生上了这种课后有何就业机会才决定开不开这门课。进一步当它变成生活教育的一部分后,其陶冶性格、美化生活的功能要求即将到来,这时,我们要求的是:「勤练泡茶」。

有一次泡茶师考试2.的检讨会上茶友提出这样的问题:学琴的人每天要练数小时,长期磨练下来才能称得上「家」,反观我们泡茶的人,嘻嘻哈哈地聊天泡茶,哪能称得上「道」?被他这么一问,环视一下身边的茶友,在准备泡茶师考试的前一两个月,每天八小时,甚至十小时的泡茶练习是有的,考期过后是否还经常勤练就不得而知了,但是「要勤加练习」的观念,不如学音乐、学绘画的人是可能的,因为茶道教育的深入与普及度尚不如音乐与绘画。

学音乐、美术的人都知道非得把演奏(或歌唱)、绘画的能力磨练好,是无法将艺术的境界表现出来的,茶人们3.也应该深刻体会泡茶的功夫是茶道表现、茶道体认的基础,而泡茶的功夫必须天天勤加练习,使茶汤4.能控制得精准。

或许是一般茶人未曾深究茶道的内涵,不知道茶道并非只是精美的茶具、漂亮的衣服,加上插花5.焚香6.就成的,主要的还是茶人自身泡茶的功夫与情境、思想、美感的掌控,而这些又都是以泡茶、知茶、赏茶为基础,这些基本工非得依赖勤加练习才能得到。

音乐家与画家透过音乐与绘画将艺术表现出来,然后举办演奏会请大家来聆听,或将绘画作品卖出去;茶人们也应该有此能力与价值,将茶泡好,将茶境表现好,然后请别人付钱享用。

我们经常以音乐或绘画为例来说明茶道的本体与价值,今天并以音乐、绘画的基本功夫来说明泡茶在茶道上的重要,而且以音乐与绘画的「有价」来表明茶叶以外的茶道价值,希望茶道能很快地提升到「很值钱」的地步。

以下为文内之编码Coding in the text:

1. 「茶道」‘the Way of Tea’

2. 泡茶师考试Tea Brewers Examination

3. 茶人tea gurus

4. 茶汤tea infusion

5. 插花flower arrangement

6. 焚香incense burning

说明:茶的“美”、茶的“性” 、茶的“境”是认识茶、享受茶的重要途径,但这部分不容易表述。有关茶道思想方面的文章,无论那种语文,都颇缺乏,现在我们试着用华文描述,再请专人译成 英文,使我们想要表达的尽量以其原始面貌呈现,让各地的读者能一起共享喝茶的乐趣。我们也认为这是当代很重要的茶文化推广工作。本茶道术语翻译及审定工作始于2010.01月,一直持续进行中。英文翻译:Katharine Yip。(文內之编码系方便中英对照之茶道术语)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        (1096)

The Unique State of Nothingness-Rong-tsang Tsai

茶道的獨特境界—无The Unique State of Nothingness

蔡荣章Rong-tsang Tsai

(2003.03《茶艺》月刊社论The Editorial of “Tea Culture Monthly”)

It is just natural that a person wants to stress certain ideas related to his area of expertise and studies. This author is no exception – some ideas keep surfacing in between lines. The idea of ‘nothingness’, for example, is one of them.

Different schools of thought hold on to their own beliefs in the Way of Tea. Whatever the case, these beliefs will have to originate from ‘tea’ itself; any tagged-on thoughts that do not have their roots in tea will fizzle out, sooner if not later. By studying the origin and the use of tea, we have come to notice that ‘nothingness’ is one of its unique features. In the course of tea production, nothing is added – the process involves self-occurring reaction of tea leaves with the natural elements of air, water and temperature. It is this ‘nothingness’, however, that gives rise to tea infusion with a myriad of taste – from green to black, from white to red. When it comes to brewing, however sophisticated the technique, all it needs is water, which has no colour, odour, taste and almost no minerals. It is water and its unique nature (that could best be described as one of ‘nothingness’) that give tea infusion of different grades and flavors. As for drinking, the only state of mind for absolute appreciation of tea is an absence of preconception or prejudice1.. With no fixed mindset2., one will be able to appreciate each and every type of tea leaves with an open mind. The state of ‘nothingness’ is, as such, a characteristic of the Way of Tea that originates from tea itself.

We should also introduce and promote the concept of ‘nothingness’ through the organization of Sans Self Tea Gathering3.. The term ‘Sans Self’, literally ‘selfless’, may well be elaborated as ‘the self who is aware of the presence of nothingness’4.. First, seats are allocated by drawing lots5. with no reference to seniority, so one can sample tea brewed by different people. Second, tea is served in one direction6. with no specific intention, and hence, expectation of reciprocation or reward. Third, each individual brings along tea leaves of his own choice7., and participants will get to drink different types of teas with no preconception or preference; this helps to cultivate an open mindset. Fourth, there should be no conversation throughout the gathering8., as attention should be fully devoted to brewing a good pot. Fifth, there is no moderator as the procedure has been set beforehand9.; unlike the idea of becoming nothing (as in death) or having nothing (in terms of possession), such nothingness as in the absence of moderation signifies the culmination of our realization and enlightenment pertaining to wealth, knowledge, status or visual aesthetics, the same way as the seven colours come together to radiate light without any of those colours. Sixth, mutual understanding and coordination brings out rhythmic beauty of the masses10. – it is the best possible natural state between one another, between people and land, between people and things, and between people and the Universe, which are the diversified combinations that requires no particular pairing. Seventh, there is no specific requirement as to the tea ware or tea brewing methods11., the regional style or schools of thought; and this requires profound accommodation of the concept of nothingness. This way, we will be exposed to the fruits of everybody’s hard work, which enriches overall tea resources. Aren’t we all tea lovers? How would we discourage one another from developing better teas, coming up with more tea brewing methods, designing more tea utensils, and exploring theories and thoughts pertaining to tea? The reality is, there may just be too much of the fixed mindset on preconceptions, fame and fortune, and status that blocks our acceptance of the spirit of nothingness.

We believe that by taking in and spreading the idea of nothingness, tea gurus12. will be able to brew an even better pot, and enjoy more extensive resources pertaining to our tea culture.

以下为文内之编码Coding in the text:

1.absence of preconception or prejudice无好恶之心

2.no fixed mindset无先入为主

3.Sans Self Tea Gathering「无我茶会」

4.‘the self who is aware of the presence of nothingness’ 「知道『无』的我」

5.seats are allocated by drawing lots「抽签决定座位」

6.tea is served in one direction「依同一方向奉茶」

7.each individual brings along tea leaves of his own choice「茶叶自备、茶类不拘」

8.there should be no conversation throughout the gathering「席间不语」

9.there is no moderator as the procedure has been set beforehand「依既定程序,不设指挥」

10.mutual understanding and coordination brings out rhythmic beauty of the masses「默契与协调,显现群体律动之美」

11.there is no specific requirement as to the tea ware or tea brewing methods「茶具、泡法不拘」

12.tea gurus茶人

Introduction:The aesthetics, character and the state of mind created are not to be undermined in the understanding and enjoyment of tea; and yet, they are the hardest to express.  Writings on the thoughts pertaining to tea, regardless of languages used, remain scarce.   We have attempted to express them in Chinese, with accompanying English translation(Translator:Katherine Yip.2010.01), to elaborate our thoughts as they are. What we want is to share the knowledge of tea alongside tea drinking.  This is, in our opinion, an important contemporary task in promoting the tea culture (Coding in the text is for cross-referencing of the academic terms of tea).

 

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茶道的獨特境界-无-蔡荣章

茶道的獨特境界-The Unique State of Nothingness

 蔡荣章Rong-tsang Tsai

 2003.03《茶艺》月刊社论The Editorial of “Tea Culture Monthly”

每一个人对自己所钻研的学科都会有自己想强调的观点,本文作者当然也在笔墨间显露出很多个人的见解,如「无」的观念就是一再强调的地方。

在茶的领域里,不同的学派当然会有自己想强调的茶道理念。但这理念应从「茶」而生,否则只是外来的思想挂靠在茶的身上是不扎实的。我们从「茶」的诞生与应用上发现「无」是很重要的特色:茶的制造过程中除了利用空气、水、温度等大自然的元素与「自体」发生效用外,无需外加其他的东西,但却因为这样的「无」,产生出从绿到红,从白到黑的各种茶味。再说茶的冲泡,即使再讲究的技术,也只需要无色、无味,几近没有矿物质的白水而已,然而也就是因为这样几近于「无」的水,将茶泡出不受干扰的各种品级与风味的茶汤。最后说到品饮,也是要以无好恶之心1.、无先入为主2.的态度才能体会、欣赏出各种不同个性的茶叶,若是无法放空,就会或多或少阻挡了与茶为友的领域。这些「无」,都是从茶原生出的茶道特质。

我们也把这样的「无」,透过「无我茶会」3.的举办,介绍、推广出去。无我茶会的「无我」应该解释为「知道『无』的我」4.。第一,「抽签决定座位」5.,不只无尊卑之分,而且「无」后才能随遇而安,才能喝到很多人所冲泡的茶汤。第二,「依同一方向奉茶」6.,磨练自己无所为而为地奉茶,降低报偿之心。第三,「茶叶自备、茶类不拘」7.,不但能喝到各种不同类别的茶,而且训练自己无好恶之心、培养超然的胸怀。第四,「席间不语」8.,认真把茶泡好,太多的心思容易分散自己的注意力。第五,「依既定程序,不设指挥」9.。「既定程序是有」,「不设指挥是无」。我们强调的「无」不是一无所有的无,不是死亡的无,而是有了以后的无,如「光」的无色是由七彩融合成的;将财富、知识、地位、美体融汇贯通后所形成的无才是我们喜爱的境界。第六,「默契与协调,显现群体律动之美」10.。这是人与人、人与地、人与物、人与宇宙之间最佳的「自然」状况,是多元「无」的组合。第七,「茶具、泡法不拘」11.,无地域与流派之分。这更需要有「无」的体认与胸襟,由此,不但可以博览大家所研发的成果,而且丰富了自己所拥有的「茶」的资源。我们不都是爱茶人吗?怎么会排斥别人研制更好的茶、发现更多的泡法、设计更多用具与探讨更丰富的理论思想呢?只怕太多「观念」、「名利」、「地位」的「有」阻扰了「无」的通行。

我们相信把「无」的精神吸收、推广后,茶人12.一定可以泡更好的茶,享受到更美的茶文化资源。

 以下为文內之编码Coding in the text:

1. 无好恶之心absence of preconception or prejudice

2. 无先入为主no fixed mindset

3.「无我茶会」Sans Self Tea Gathering

4.「知道『无』的我」‘the self who is aware of the presence of nothingness’

5.「抽签决定座位」seats are allocated by drawing lots

6.「依同一方向奉茶」tea is served in one direction

7. 「茶叶自备、茶类不拘」each individual brings along tea leaves of his own choice

8. 「席间不语」there should be no conversation throughout the gathering

9. 「依既定程序,不设指挥」there is no moderator as the procedure has been set beforehand

10. 「默契与协调,显现群体律动之美」mutual understanding and coordination brings out rhythmic beauty of the masses

11. 「茶具、泡法不拘」there is no specific requirement as to the tea ware or tea brewing methods

12. 茶人tea gurus

 说明:茶的“美”、茶的“性” 、茶的“境”是认识茶、享受茶的重要途径,但这部分不容易表述。有关茶道思想方面的文章,无论那种语文,都颇缺乏,现在我们试着用华文描述,再请专人译成 英文,使我们想要表达的尽量以其原始面貌呈现,让各地的读者能一起共享喝茶的乐趣。我们也认为这是当代很重要的茶文化推广工作。本茶道术语翻译及审定工作始于2010.01月,一直持续进行中。英文翻译:Katharine Yip。(文内之编码系方便中英对照之茶道术语)

 

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從「茶道學習」到「抽象概念的產生」-蔡荣章

從「茶道學習」到「抽象概念的產生」From the Concept of the Abstract to the Learning of the Way of Tea

蔡荣章Rong-tsang Tsai

(2002.08《茶艺》月刊社论)

  知道了茶道1与抽象艺术的关系,我们还要知道如何去了解抽象的事物。宇宙间的事物,抽象的要比具象的多得多,如果我们只看得懂、听得懂具象的事务,那我们是半瞎半聋的。

我们希望茶者2重视抽象概念的体认与抽象艺术的欣赏,因为有了这些修养,对不规则的茶器如顺手捏来的茶碗、茶壶,茶席里用泥土稻草糊成的墙壁,草庵式茶席3屋顶底部坦裸的结构……才得以理解与接纳。有了抽象的理念,也才能借着各项茶具的组合、全程的泡茶品饮手法、茶屋空间的设计与布置、以及所饮用的茶叶、茶汤4来表达所要诉说的道理与希望与大家享用的境界。

抽象概念的建立首先要破除已认知形象的束缚,如看到山,不要一直追寻山形长得像猫或像狗,参观石展,不要只注意到石头里面的纹路显现的是一尊观音或罗汉。其次是屏除生理机能的干扰,如画室里进行人体创作,应只专注于身躯线条与肌肉质感显现的美感。进一步则是超越已经知道的功能性,如走过天天经过的菜市场,暂且忘掉卖鱼卖肉的功能,换个心情欣赏一下:收摊之后,刷洗得非常洁净,显露明显木纹与年轮的肉摊上那块劈砍不坏的厚木板。最后还得忘掉原以为是「理所当然」的结构与式样,泡茶时的那把壶,谁说壶嘴一定是长在壶身的一侧,它可以长在顶上,也可以长在底部,茶碗哪有规定非圆的不可?

有了以上的这些观念与训练,才可以单纯就线条、色彩与质感从事美的创作与欣赏,对于形象如此,对于音乐亦如此。抽象与具象并没有严格的界线,认知之前往往偏向于抽象,如在未知茶碗为何物之前,看到茶碗之时的抽象概念是优于具象的;但是在认知之后,却偏向于具象。如从事抽象艺术创作的人,熟知自己的抽象语汇之后,一看或一听则都是老面孔、熟声音。

「认知」随着岁月与知识的增长不断扩大其领域,人们也因此拓展了生活的空间。「抽象」的概念与习惯可以让感官与思想经验不断更新,这是创作的泉源,也是茶道得以运用自如的基础。

以下为文內之编码Coding in the text:

茶道1 the Way of Tea 1

茶者2 tea aficionados 2

草庵3 thatched huts 3

茶汤4 tea infusion 4

 说明:茶的“美”、茶的“性” 、茶的“境”是认识茶、享受茶的重要途径,但这部分不容易表述。有关茶道思想方面的文章,无论那种语文,都颇缺乏,现在我们试着用华文描述,再请专人译成 英文,使我们想要表达的尽量以其原始面貌呈现,让各地的读者能一起共享喝茶的乐趣。我们也认为这是当代很重要的茶文化推广工作。本茶道术语翻译及审定工作 始于2010.01月,一直持续进行中。英文翻译:Katharine Yip。(文內之编码系方便中英对照之茶道术语)

 


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